What is inside a lithium battery?

According to the U.S. department of energy: “A battery is made up of an anode, cathode, separator, electrolyte, and two current collectors (positive and negative). The anode and cathode store the lithium. The electrolyte carries positively charged lithium ions from the anode to the cathode and vice versa through the separator. The movement of the lithium ions creates free electrons in the anode which creates a charge at the positive current collector. The electrical current then flows from the current collector through a device being powered (cell phone, computer, etc.) to the negative current collector. The separator blocks the flow of electrons inside the battery.”

Recently, many electric vehicle fires and explosions have once again pushed the safety of power batteries to the forefront. Peng Yumin, director of the Industrial Technology Research Institute, pointed out that the safety problems of lithium batteries mainly come from the increase in the internal temperature of the battery, including improper heating of the battery, overcharging, and short circuits caused by contact between the positive and negative materials, which will all cause the internal temperature of the lithium battery to rise.